Tag: singapore history

Building Singapore Brick by Brick

Before Singapore became a city of glass and steel skyscrapers, it was a town built out of bricks made on the very shores of this island. “Our Brick Estate” is an on-going exhibition traces the history of this construction material in Singapore, rebuilding the history of the local brick industry by assembling a collection of Made-in-Singapore bricks at the library@esplanade. Architectural and urban historian Lai Chee Kien, who curated this exhibition, tells us more.

A collection of Made-in-Singapore bricks are on display at the “Our Bricks Estate” exhibition through the end of August. | PUBLIC DOMAIN
A collection of Made-in-Singapore bricks are on display at the “Our Bricks Estate” exhibition through the end of August. | PUBLIC DOMAIN

How did this exhibition come about?
The library@esplanade has seven vertical glass showcases used for exhibition every August for topics related to National Day. This year, a friend — Ms. Khoo Ee Hoon, suggested I curate one about bricks found in Singapore. She had heard my comment while documenting Bukit Brown Cemetery tombs, that bricks of all types from Singapore could be found there. She was also an avid collector of these bricks.

Where did you find the bricks for this exhibition?
The bricks came from several collections including Ee Hoon’s, those of Mr. Jevon Liew, and those excavated by a friend, Dr. Anoma Pieris, in 2001 while working on the former convict prison site at Bras Basah during the construction of the Singapore Management University. Together, they constitute an almost complete collection of bricks from most of Singapore’s important brick factories after World War II, as well as the early hand-made bricks which were thinner (about 1.5 inches thick) and coarser in finish.

Why were bricks made in Singapore?
Even during the classical Malay kingdom period when structures were constructed on Fort Canning, bricks would have been used. In 1822, the first Town Plan of Singapore mandated permanent materials to be used, and various brick kilns were set up around the Rochore-Kallang river areas. In 1858, the colonial government started its own brick factory, and the industrial methods produced bricks good enough to win prizes, as they did in Agra exhibition in 1867. Bricks were continually used in construction as many areas in the southern and western areas of Singapore had good quality clay to be used as raw materials for the bricks. There was a labour and price crisis in the 1950s when many factories closed, but the next decade onwards saw a rekindling of the industry when the Singapore government embarked on a large scale development programme including housing. By 2000, however, the factories’ land in Jurong and Choa Chu Kang were acquired to create new housing estates.

Brick makers in Singapore often printed their names onto the bricks themselves | PUBLIC DOMAIN
Brick makers in Singapore often printed their names onto the bricks themselves | PUBLIC DOMAIN

What were bricks made in Singapore like? Were they unique in anyway? (e.g. material, quality)
They were various types of bricks made in Singapore, including white bricks using a different clay. I think the development from the traditional kiln to more industrial kiln types, like the Hoffman kiln and later the tunnel kiln, made quality control a mainstay. For example, even though Asia Brick Factory at Jalan Lam San occupied only 10.3 hectares of land, it was able to produce around 37 million bricks annually in the late 1980s, when they employed a tunnel kiln.

Who were Singapore’s brick makers?
They varied from convict labour used to make the earliest bricks, to small-scale Chinese brickyards all over the island during the colonial and inter-war periods. Investment from elsewhere was also used to finance them. In 1972, sensing that it would be better for their supplies, the Housing & Development Board purchased a factory to make its own bricks and to prevent price fluctuations. At one point in time in the 1980s, the demand for bricks was so great that millions of bricks had to be imported from elsewhere to feed the construction industry.

What was the extent of Singapore’s bricks industry?
The factories were located in the southern areas of Singapore (Bukit Merah and Alexandra, for instance) and in large areas in the west. There was one in the Upper Serangoon area and earlier ones adjacent to the Rochore and Kallang Rivers. Most bricks were produced for use in Singapore, but companies have been known to supply bricks to Malaysia and elsewhere.

Where is Singapore’s brick industry today?
There are no more brick factories in Singapore today, as bricks are now all imported from overseas. Their characteristic tall chimneys and sprawling drying yards can no longer be seen. There are still kilns, but these are used more for firing ceramics, like Thow Kwang in Jurong.

The MacDonald House was completed in 1949 with locally made bricks, and has been gazetted as a national monument. | CHOO YUT SING
The MacDonald House was completed in 1949 with locally made bricks, and has been gazetted as a national monument. | CHOO YUT SING

What are some buildings still standing today that used these Made-in-Singapore bricks?
The many HDB flats all over the island would have them — these are the ones built before pre-cast panels and components were used in the 1990s. MacDonald House, the old Central Fire Station, old shophouses and even the National University of Singapore campus uses a lot of bricks as a primary construction material. You can see an exposed brick archway at The Arts House, which was completed in 1826 using probably imported bricks. A lot of bricks are plastered up nowadays so you can only see the plaster work and not the bricks that were covered up. Many others have known to paint over facing bricks for their homes and other buildings.

How can we identify a Made-in-Singapore brick?
We can mainly tell by their factory names imprinted onto the brick recess. Some of these include: Alexandra, Jurong, Nanyang, Sin Chew, Malayan, Asia, Goh Bee, Kim Lan, and Tekong, etc.

Pressing for Singapore

Donald Moore and his wife, Joanna, helped build an arts and culture scene in Singapore and Malaya after the second World War. | COURTESY OF SUMI SAITO
Donald Moore and his wife, Joanna, helped build an arts and culture scene in Singapore and Malaya after the second World War. | COURTESY OF SUMI SAITO

A pioneer in developing Singapore’s post-war arts and culture scene is finally getting the spotlight he deserves. A retrospective exhibition has been organised for Mr Donald Moore, a writer, publisher, theatre producer and co-owner of lifestyle-concept store Donald Moore Galleries.

The Arts House, with the help of book publisher Goh Eck Kheng, have put together some 80 artefacts —  books, programme leaflets and Moore’s photographs — to tell the forgotten tale of a man who created a multi-million empire in Malaya by bringing in world-class acts like Mohammed Ali and publishing the first biography on Lee Kuan Yew. This all went bust 30 years later as Moore eventually went bankrupt and left for England with only £250 in his pocket.

 

The programme cover for the 1973 Muhammad Ali exhibition fight that Moore brought in. | DONALD MOORE COLLECTION, COURTESY OF NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF SINGAPORE
The programme cover for the 1973 Muhammad Ali exhibition fight that Moore brought in. | DONALD MOORE COLLECTION, COURTESY OF NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF SINGAPORE

Through his imprint “Donald Moore Press,” Moore printed many books on the arts and culture in Singapore and Malaya, including a “Background to Malaya Series” in the 1950s. This was written by various writers such as journalist Alex Josey and academic Wang Gungwu, who gave insights to the region via a range of topics such as its pre-history, education system and even the state of the fishing industry.

In the 1950s, Moore published the “Background to Malaya Series” (left) which featured various academics and writers expounding on different aspects of Malaya. They were the inspiration for the new exhibition’s flyer (right).
In the 1950s, Moore published the “Background to Malaya Series” (left) which featured various academics and writers expounding on different aspects of Malaya. They were the inspiration for the new exhibition’s flyer (right).

Below is a gallery of book covers published (or written) by Moore courtesy of Mr Lai Chee Kien who is also moderating a panel discussion this Thursday on this renaissance man and his contributions to Singapore’s arts and culture scene.

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Singapore’s 3G Graphic Designers

As with any community that has been around long enough, there are several generations that lie within it. Identifying this is useful in understanding why they act and think differently, and helps us predict what future generations of this community could be like.

In my latest book INDEPENDENCE: The history of graphic design in Singapore since the 1960s, I’ve categorised the graphic design community here to three generations, each having different values and thoughts about graphic design and its roles. Briefly, they are:

ZERO (prior to 1980s): These were the graphic artists working in advertising agencies, sign-makers, and freelance commercial artists. Many of them were artists trying to make a living or trained as technicians in Singapore’s first design school, Baharuddin Vocational Institute. Designers of this generation were essentially craftsmen who sold their artistic skills to businesses, usually for advertising purposes.
Examples: Hagley & Hoyle · Central Design 

ONE (1980s-1997): Graphic designers of this era understood the role of good design in good business, and not just for advertising, but also in crafting a corporate image. This expanded role encouraged designers to professionalise so that they were taken seriously. These ideas came from several designs who received training overseas and returned to Singapore and started their own studios. Around the same time, the Singapore government also pushed local businesses to adopt design and take on a global market. The design industry in Singapore boomed during this period, until the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Examples: Design Objectives · Su Yeang Design · Viscom Design 

TWO (1997-???): The arrival of the computer in the 1990s and the the Internet in the 2000s accelerated the progress of young designers who bypassed the existing Singapore design scene, and hence a generation gap. They got ideas from overseas faster and could now easily carry them out on their own. By then, Singapore had embraced globalisation, and loosened up at home as a consequence. This created new opportunities for designers to work on a very different genre of design besides corporate work, and designers became part of a growing Singapore creative community. When the government acknowledged the importance of the creative industries for its future economy in the early 2000s, the torchlight was shone upon these young creatives who became recognised as the new face of Singapore design.
Examples: :phunk studio · Asylum · H55 

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At this point in time, I’m unclear if we’ve seen the end of a second generation of Singapore’s graphic designers. In the last few years, many new design studios shave started up, but are they very different from their predecessors? It’s too early to tell.

Based on the age of studios, we could consider FARM (2005), silnt (2005), Couple (2007), Foreign Policy Design (2007), pupilpeople (2008) and Hjgher (2009) as one group, but how different are they from generation TWO? And when we compare these with the bumper crop of new studios last year — Somewhere Else, Studio Kaleido, ACRE, Roots, Relay Room, Terrain, STUDIO VBK, Swarm, Tofu  — are they another group? I’m very keen to find out.